Jul 052016

A growing number of desperate opioid users who cannot get their hands on painkillers, such as Oxycontin and Vicodin, are turning to the anti-diarrhea drug Imodium to mitigate the symptoms of opioid withdrawal or satisfy their addiction. The said medication used to be a prescription drug and a controlled substance up until 1988 when it became an over-the-counter drug and became easier to access.

Why Addicts Turn to Imodium?

Imodium has an active ingredient, known as loperamide, which gives a certain high to any individual who consumes it in excessive amounts. A report that was published online also said that abuse of this drug has been linked to two deaths in New York as well as irregular heartbeats which are considered to be life-threatening, with about a dozen cases reported for the period of 18 months. It does not enter the central nervous and acts on the opioid receptors in the gastrointestinal tract. When taken in small doses, it will not result to a certain high but in excessive amounts, it can be fatal.

It was just recent that medical experts have discovered the proliferation of Imodium-abuse although toxicologists and doctors in emergency departments believe this growing problem is more widespread. According to lead author and SUNY Upstate Medical Center clinical toxicologist, William Eggleston, patients are taking it over a period of several months and are turning to loperamide to get high and manage muscle pains and other symptoms of opioid withdrawal.

Meanwhile, spokeswoman for the Food and Drug Administration, Sarah Peddicord, has already expressed their knowledge of the threatening growing habit and confirmed that they are going to do something about the problem.

“The F.D.A. is aware of recent reports of adverse events related to the intentional misuse and/or abuse of the anti-diarrhea product loperamide to treat symptoms of opioid withdrawal or produce euphoric effects.”

Loperamide, if taken in the recommended dose, of not exceeding four caplets or eight milligrams,is not harmful. However, people who abuse the use are reported to take up to 100 caplets of two milligrams on a daily basis.

There have been two cases of two individuals who lost their lives as the effect of taking excessive doses of the drug. One was a 39-year old man who underwent self-medication using the anti-diarrhea drug, instead of the prescribed buprenorphine to manage opioid withdrawal symptoms while another man, who was 24 years old, also died from the use of loperamide.

Since the drug is a non-prescription medication and is not expensive at only $7.59 for 4oo tablets, purchasing the drug in large amounts did not really raise a red flag. Experts also reiterated that the presence of loperamide in patients cannot be detected in routine drug screenings.

Patients who suffer from loperamide abuse show signs of lethargy and can manifest symptoms of heroin overdose. Because of this, the reversal drug given to patients is the anti-opioid drug, Naloxone.

Expert toxicologists are pushing on putting a limit on the sales of loperamide, just like the cap on the sales of pseudoephedrine, a non-prescription drug, 10 years ago. According to Dr. Eggleston, the FDA is going to believe the seriousness of the issue when more people will be creating noise about it.





 Posted by at 10:35 am
Jun 092016

With fentanyl, addiction problems in the US related to opioid-based painkillers have just got more dangerous. This highly potent painkiller prescribed by doctors for treating cancer is now being produced illegally and rolled out on the streets to deliver a super high that often leads to death. While this drug has been around way back the 1960s soothing pain in cancer patients, it can also kill, with the most recent, popular case involving the death of American songwriter, singer, record producer, multi-instrumentalist and actor, Prince. Now, recreational users are learning that this drug causes an effect that is very easy to overdose on.

Natasha Butler, a mother, has shared how fentanyl has ruined her life, when it caused the death of her only son, Jerome. Having never heard of the substance, she was baffled when doctors told her that her son died from an overdose of it, which is revealed to be 50x stronger than heroin and 100x more potent than morphine. She said that Jerome had never been prescribed with the drug, though shared that Jerome was given by an acquaintance what he thought was a Norco pill, which is a less potent painkiller also based on opioid, but actually contained fentanyl.

Jerome was just one of the ten people who died in just a short period of 12 days in March from pills containing such a substance, contributing to a sudden rise of deaths in Sacramento County, California. Now, investigators are still tracing the source, with similar incidents of overdose involving fentanyl occurring across the US.

Pointing out the potency of the drug, San Francisco-based Special Agent John Martin from the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) said, “Just micrograms can make a difference between life and death. It’s that serious. All you have to do is touch it. It can be absorbed through the skin and the eyes.” He added that this prolific killer is so potent that when law enforcers try to seize it, they have to be in level-A hazmat suits, which are the same kind of gear worn by healthcare workers to avoid being contaminated by the Ebola virus.

Forensic scientist Terry Baisz also shared her concerns about fentanyl being commonplace in her community today, even surprised by the similarity of the drug’s appearance to those being sold by pharmaceutical firms. “They look like what you’re getting from the pharmacy,” she said. “I was shocked the first time I tested this stuff and it came back as fentanyl. We hadn’t seen it before 2015 and now we’re seeing it a lot.” Since the drug has made its way to Orange County, it has been causing the deaths of many people.

Another official who was alarmed by the trend, that she had to get involved, is California State Senator Patricia Bates. Commenting on the lethality of fentanyl, she said, “Two minutes, and you could be in respiratory arrest and be dead. It’s kind of like, get high and die.” She has learned these details as related overdose deaths started rising in areas she is representing, particularly South Orange County. Now, she is trying to pass a bill that places heavier penalties on those selling the drug at high volumes.

Eliza Wheeler, project manager of the Drug Overdose Prevention and Education (DOPE) Project in San Francisco, California is also helping get the word out on the streets about fentanyl. She said that many people do not know about the drug, and her campaign will spread awareness and help people avoid the lethal consequences they get from it.





 Posted by at 2:28 pm
May 192016

One of the serious health problems in the US is the abuse and nonmedical use of prescription drugs. The numbers won’t lie, as there are 52 million people who take prescription medications for non-medical reasons. Those under this group are young people, according to the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) survey entitled Monitoring the Future.

Senior high school students are found out that 1 out of 12 use prescription pain reliever called Vicodin for nonmedical use. Meanwhile, 1 out of 20 students were found to abuse OxyContin that makes these medications highly abused by adolescents.


Side-Effects of Abusing Prescription Drugs

Prescription drugs such as stimulants, opioids, and depressants may lead to various adverse health effects which include addiction. However, prescription drug abuse may differ in according to age and gender, among other factors. The sad thing about this is that the deaths due to unintentional overdose of prescription drugs such as opioid painkillers quadrupled as of 1999. In fact, it has allegedly outnumbered those that involve cocaine and heroin addiction.


Prescription Drug Abuse Treatment Methodology

When referring a child to a treatment center, it is important to know what to look for. This is due to the fact that not all treatments are designed equally. According to the NIDA, choosing a program must involve treatment methods that have strong scientific evidence. Additionally, it is crucial to note whether it has customized treatments to the individual needs of a particular patient. One good example is to look into the background and history of the patient with drug abuse.

Likewise, it is important to note that when choosing a treatment program must use a combinational approach on therapy. This must be able to address the detoxification and the continuing treatment of the patient.


Role of the Family in the Treatment Process

The NIDA also encourages the families of the victim to consider substance abuse to be tantamount to chronic disorders including asthma and heart disease. For this reason, it is essential to keep the connection to the community since a local support group is important.

Drug Abuse as a Social Issue

According to the NIDA director, it is difficult to determine the greater impact of prescription drug addiction if the social issues of the individual aren’t given any attention. For this reason, it is best to address substance abuse as a disorder from the perspective of the whole person.

Research on Early Warning Signs

The National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse is focused on researching to uncover the link that exists between behavioral traits and substance abuse. This will eventually provide parents with the essential warning signs to avoid getting their children to addiction.

It is also their effort to determine if the treatment methods being used works or not. Hence, it is their responsibility to inform healthcare providers and individuals regarding their findings.

Moreover, the National Institute of Health provides resources that should fit adults, children, and young adults who are suffering from prescription medication abuse. This can be done with the use of diagnoses, tests, medications, and similar options for therapy.






 Posted by at 10:14 am
Apr 232016

The numbers surrounding opioid addiction in the United States are surprising and depressing at the same time. Almost two million people are abusing prescription opioid painkillers, while 14,000 people die every year from misusing these drugs. Prescription-filling of painkillers have risen from 2004 to 2012, while deaths from drug overdoses have risen from 2002 to 2014 and reached an all-time high.

The rise in opioid addiction has prompted many people to take action. President Obama, for example, has allotted more than $1 billion of the budget to fund the fight against heroin and opioid abuse, while several presidential candidates have given their opinion about the topic. Still, there’s one solution that many people have not learned or heard about, and it’s called naltrexone.


What is naltrexone?

Naltrexone is an FDA-approved drug that can treat dependence on opiates (which include heroin and morphine). It works by competing with opiates for the brain’s opioid receptors and blocking the effects of these drugs. It has been approved to help patients who are battling alcohol addiction.

Naltrexone can be taken orally, but experts have developed an extended-release version of the drug that must be injected to patients once a month. It’s considered to be better than other opiate addiction treatments (like methadone and buprenorphine) that need to be taken daily in pill form. Since it’s easier to stick a once-a-month injection appointment than to remember taking a pill every day, experts assume that those who opt for extended-release naltrexone can recover quickly and effectively from their opiate addiction.


Why naltrexone isn’t widely used

Naltrexone sounds like the miracle that many opiate-dependent patients need, so why isn’t it embraced by addiction rehabilitation facilities and used to treat many people? There are several reasons for this, and these include the following:


It’s a drug-based strategy

Many rehab centers focus on counseling patients and encouraging them to change their behavior, which is why they look down on using pharmacological means to treat addiction. But, while it’s certainly essential to modify patients’ approach to life, it’s important to note that not everyone responds well to behavior modification and that naltrexone may be helpful to those who don’t.


It may lead to overdose

Many experts are afraid that people who take naltrexone injections and then stop to go back to opiate abuse may be at higher risk of overdose. However, a recent study shows that this isn’t true and even demonstrates that naltrexone can help opiate-dependent patients who are eager to turn their lives around.


It can be expensive

Naltrexone certainly isn’t cheap, considering that it has to be refrigerated at all times and must be administered by trained personnel. But the cost seems to be worth it since it, aside from saving lives, it saves both the government and individuals a substantial amount in healthcare costs.


Should naltrexone use be encouraged?

The short answer seems to be “Yes”. It’s now up to addiction rehab experts to recommend the extended-release version of naltrexone to their patients. Opiate-dependent patients who want to get well should also ask their medical team to see if they’re qualified to receive monthly naltrexone injections.





 Posted by at 8:00 am
Mar 292016

Heroin is highly abused in Jacksonville, Florida where it is said to be claiming more lives in Duval County than ever before. This involves cases of heroin for sale, heroin abuse and incarceration related to the drug which has been increasing dramatically. In fact, rehabilitation facilities in the city revealed that they are now tackling nearly 50% more of these cases than the previous years.

“You can easily, especially in Jacksonville they’re everywhere there’s a drug dealer on every corner,” said a patient and mother of two, named Kelsey McCoy. “All you have to do is go up and (ask) do you know where I can find this? And if they don’t know and if they don’t have it they know someone who does. It never fails. You can always find it.” McCoy stated that she went from abusing pain pills to using heroin, explaining that her ex-boyfriend introduced her to the drug. For her, access to it was literally very easy. “It was the cost,” she explained. “Pain pills were getting too expensive. It’s $30 a pill or you could spend $20 and get what would be the same effect of using two pills. It gives you a feeling of power almost.”

However, this powerful, but false, feeling of hope and courage nearly cost her everything. “I have a 4-month-old and a 9-year-old,” McCoy stated. “I’ve always had my children, I’ve always been a good mom. It came down to either I come here or I lose my kids and I’m not losing my kids.” She nearly lost her life, like others close to her home and across the country. According to statistics, deaths related to heroin in Duval County have increased from 17 in 2014 to 45 in 2015.

Commenting on this situation, physician assistant at Gateway Community Services, Danny Smith, said “I’m not surprised because heroin use is up. When people come in (I ask) what’s your drug choice? Heroin. It use to be this, but the heroin is less expensive so they’re using more and more heroin.”

For 5 years, Smith has worked with rehab patients, and seen a 43% spike in heroin use from July 2015 through February 2016, compared with the number in the same period last year. “Parents need to talk to their kids a lot more,” Smith added. “See what they’re doing and be involved with them. I think that will help more than anything else.”

McCoy, who is now just weeks away from completing a rehab program, has warned that while a high from heroin is just short lived, its effects could last a lifetime. “It’s so dangerous just stay away from it,” she said. “You literally could go get one thing from one person one day and be fine and get the exact same amount from the exact same person the very next day and fall out and overdose.”

Also, the Jacksonville Sheriff’s Office revealed that the incarceration rate for crimes related to the drug increased from 77 in 2014 to 117 in 2015. And so far this 2016, there have been already 19 arrests related to heroin, and Smith wants to spread awareness that drugs are far reaching and could be found in any neighborhood.





 Posted by at 2:44 pm
Feb 112016

When Stone Temple Pilots’ long-running front act, Scott Weiland gave in to drug overdose, it got many people grieving and thinking.

Grieving because Weiland was a music legend, and although he was no longer part of the STP band and was touring with a new group at the time of his death, he’ll forever remain STP’s famous lead singer.

Thinking because not many people know MDA – a drug better known as Sally, Sass or Sassafras. So what is MDA aka Sally? It might be better to described as the drug alongside its sister drug, MMDA aka Molly.


Similarities between Sally and Molly

  1. Both Sally and Molly release the chemicals serotonin, norepinephrine and dopamine.
  2. Both act as reuptake inhibitors (RI) – they inhibit the brain from stopping the flow of serotonin, norepinephrine and dopamine chemicals and increase neurotransmission.
  3. Short-term effects of both drugs include nausea, diarrhea, lowered appetite, vomiting, and feelings of wellbeing.
  4. Long-term effects of both drugs include anxiety and depression.
  5. Both drugs cost about the same on the streets.


Differences between Sally and Molly

  1. MDA or Sally often comes in a pill form, while MDMA or Molly usually comes in powder form.
  2. Sally is more stimulant and more hallucinogenic than Molly. Molly is more psychedelic.
  3. Sally may cause erectile dysfunction, which is less or not observed with Molly.
  4. Sally is more visual high, while Molly is more lovey high.
  5. Sally’s effects lasts longer (up to six hours).


Dangers of Addiction to Sally or Molly

Like other harmful drugs, addiction to any of these two drugs brings psychological and physical dangers, which may eventually lead to death. Some people exhibit adverse reactions to both MDA and MDMA drugs. These include loss of consciousness, panic attacks, faintness, seizures, and high blood pressure.

The drugs are likely physically addictive, and users may need to take more dosage the next time around to get the high they wanted. Some people develop tolerance to the drug over time, hence the likelihood of physical addiction.

In another aspect, both Sally and Molly can cause chemical imbalance in the brain, resulting to several mental problems including anxiety, depression, insomnia, and memory loss.


Drug Addiction and Rehabilitation

Kicking drugs off your system entails a great deal of commitment and determination. Scott Weiland had been in and out of rehab since the 90s at the height of his career, and many fans at some point lost hope of him coming out clean for good. That time, it was heroine. Sadly, two decades after, he died overdosing on a more complex drug, MDA aka Sally.

Every one of us needs help at some point in our lives. Acknowledging you need help is the first step to being well and living clean. Rehabilitation provides a controlled treatment process designed to help those with substance abuse problems to work out a healthy and drug-free life. Drug rehab is usually tailor-made to the patient’s unique circumstances, offering a more customized approach. Get help. Live clean. Find out how your local drug rehab center can help you today.


 Posted by at 4:21 pm
Jan 092016

Many people wonder how ISIS fighters can stomach the thought of killing innocent people. Some say that these fighters are brain-washed by charismatic leaders, while others surmise that they’re attracted to the thought of fighting for a seemingly holy cause and/or proving their masculinity.

All of these might be true, but experts suggest that there’s another reason: ISIS fighters may be on drugs.

But not just any drug. Authorities suspect that they’re taking Captagon, a tiny but extremely powerful pill that quickly produces intense feelings of euphoria. Casual users in the Middle East, who appeared on a BBC documentary, revealed that Captagon made them fearless and powerful and caused them to feel like they own the world. One user commented that he couldn’t sleep after taking the drug, no matter how he tried to close his eyes.

Ex-Syrian fighters seem to agree. One ex-fighter who was interviewed by the BBC revealed that he was introduced to the pill by his brigade leader. After taking the drug, he felt physically fit and was awake all the time, without getting tired or feeling the need to sleep. He also became fearless and courageous and felt that he could follow whatever his leader ordered with a brave heart.

These testimonials might make Captagon sound like a super-pill that ISIS leaders concocted to feed to their men. But this isn’t really the case. Captagon is derived from a synthetic medication known as fenethylline (a stimulant) which was widely available in Western countries in the 1960s and was used to treat patients with depression, narcolepsy, and hyperactivity. However, long-term use exposed the drug’s intense addictive effects, leading many countries (including the United States) to ban it.

But this didn’t exactly stop people from using the drug, and it became popular in the Middle East. Saudi Arabia is one of the biggest consumers of the drug, with seven tons (or around one-third of the global supply) landing in the country in 2010. Syria, which is known for being a stopover for drug deliveries from Europe to the Middle East, even took things a step further by producing its own Captagon (which is easy to manufacture using legal materials).

Captagon might be tiny, but it seems to be playing a huge role in ISIS’s battle against the world. Illegal sales of the drug inject millions into Syria’s black-market economy, and experts assume that a large portion of this money ends up in ISIS’s hands. So, aside from making fighters brave and causing them to kill mercilessly, Captagon may also be contributing to the organization’s coffers and giving it the finances to buy weapons and other equipment.

This seems to be well and good for ISIS, but what about its fighters? According to doctors, long-term use of the drugs can result to psychosis, brain damage, and other dangerous side effects. So, while Islamic State fighters might feel like they’re Superman now, they most likely won’t feel so super later.

And it doesn’t stop there. As long as ISIS fighters are on Captagon, they’ll continue to feel the euphoria that lets them harm people and claim innocent lives. It’s a vicious cycle that’s fueled by a tiny but highly dangerous pill.





 Posted by at 2:23 pm
Nov 282015

A lot of people nowadays have become addicted to a wide range of substances. Some are attached to tobacco and nicotine and smoke several sticks or packs a day, while others are hooked on alcohol and can’t stop drinking. Still others are dependent on marijuana, cocaine, heroin, and methamphetamine as well as various club drugs like ecstasy.

In Tennessee, though, the drug of choice among the residents seems to be prescription painkillers. This type of substance abuse isn’t exactly new since many people over the years have become addicted to pain medicine, but what is alarming is the fact that a large portion of Tennesseans are dependent on it.


Troubling Statistics

This information has been gathered by the Department of Mental Health and Substance Abuse Services of Tennessee. They tracked the use of prescription painkiller among Tennesseans in 10 years (from 1992 to 2012) and found out that it has increased over time. This is true among all age groups but is even more pronounced in people who are in their 20s and 30s.

The department noted that 59 percent of respondents aged 21 to 24 years old pointed to prescription pain medicine as their most-abused drug. Almost 50 percent of those in their early 30s and 21 percent of those in their early 50s also reported the same thing.

Unfortunately, it doesn’t stop there since prescription painkiller addiction can result to disastrous circumstances. According to a recently released report by the state’s Department of Health, 580 people from Northeast Tennessee have died from drug overdose within just five years, from 2009 to 2014. The report also shows that the overdose death rate in this area is well-above the state average and is not showing any signs of slowing.


Prescription Drugs Facts

The question now is this: why do people become addicted to prescription pain medicine? There are actually many reasons, but they usually stem from the fact that these painkillers (like many other types of addictive substance) produce a kind of short-term euphoria. Those who use these drugs begin to crave this pleasant feeling, which causes them to take painkillers in ever-increasing dosage until they become fully addicted.

Many people who are dependent on prescription pain medicine are introduced to it in a seemingly unremarkable way. They may have experienced migraines, incurred an injury, or gone through an operation in the past, which prompted their physician to give them painkillers to keep them away from discomfort. Unfortunately, they become hooked to the euphoria that these drugs give, and they continue taking them even when they no longer need to.


New Laws

This issue has reached the ears of government officials in Tennessee, and they are looking into creating a legislation that will reduce the supply and effectively manage the distribution of prescription painkillers. This way, they won’t be easily obtained by those who have no medical need for it. Lawmakers are also looking for ways to help those who are dependent on the substances and provide them with the opportunity to obtain high-quality treatment.


 Posted by at 9:10 am
Oct 062015

The news of children getting drunk on hand sanitizer is enough to make parents take a good look at the hygiene products they use at home. But nothing could be worse than kids ending up in emergency rooms because of what is supposed to be something that will help disinfect, and help ensure health and safety at home. Unfortunately, more children are drinking alcohol-based hand sanitizers rather than using it for its intended purpose.

Six-year old Nhaijah Russell is one of those kids who had first-hand experience with the alcohol in hand sanitizers. It tasted like strawberry, which prompted her to drink three or four squirts. She ended in an emergency room sotted like an old drunk – unable to walk in a straight line or talk straight.

Because of this incident and many others, poison control centers all over the U.S. are warning parents of the increasing number of kids getting drunk on hand sanitizer. In fact, based on an analysis done by the Georgia Poison Center, the number of calls related to children ingesting hand sanitizers has increased by 400% since 2010.

According to the director of the University of Kansas Hospital poison control center, Tama Sawyer, “Kids are getting into these products more frequently and, unfortunately, there are a percentage of them going to the emergency room. It doesn’t take very much, less than a tablespoon, to make a child extremely drunk,”

So far this year, the KU Hospital has handled over 150 calls involving children under 12 years old who drunk or accidentally ingested hand sanitizer. Because of its alcohol content, it should be treated like any alcohol-based products that have the ability to intoxicate. What makes it more dangerous, however, is that it has 45% to 95% alcohol content, which is dangerously high compared to the 12% and 5% alcohol in wine and beer, respectively. So now you know why hand sanitizers can have a potent effect on children.

When Nhaijah Russell was tested for blood alcohol level, she had twice as much alcohol in her blood than an adult who is legally drunk, 0.179 to be exact. Because her intoxication caused her to fall and hit her head, her trip to the emergency room is twice as frightening for her parents. Not only is Nhaijah Russell treated for intoxication, but closely monitored for any signs of brain trauma as well.

To avoid a similar situation from happening to your own child, keep alcohol-based hand sanitizers out of reach of young children. It is believed that the product is enticing to kids because of its scent. You should also seriously question why your child is carrying a large of bottle of hand sanitizer in the purse or backpack. They might be drinking it as they are not yet legally allowed to buy beer at a liquor store.

What are the signs of alcohol poisoning or children getting drunk on hand sanitizer? Symptoms may include drowsiness, vomiting, confusion and, in severe cases, a child can stop breathing. Don’t let this happen to your child. Heed the warning of poison control centers and ensure that hand sanitizers are far from a child’s reach.

 Posted by at 3:38 pm
Sep 102015

Scientists have identified the insular cortex as the portion of the brain that could be vital in getting people to stop smoking as well as treat other kinds of addiction.

Based on the results of two studies, researchers found that smokers who suffered a stroke in the insular cortex were more likely to quit and experience withdrawal symptoms that are fewer and less severe compared to those who have had strokes in other parts of their brain. The findings of these studies were published in Addiction and Addictive Behaviors.

Lead author Amir Abdolahi said: “These findings indicate that the insular cortex may play a central role in addiction.” The research Abdolahi conducted was done when he was a doctoral student at the University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry.

Abdolahi, now at Philips Research North America, said that “When this part of the brain is damaged during stroke, smokers are about twice as likely to stop smoking and their craving and withdrawal symptoms are far less severe.”

Currently, the frontline prescription drugs – such as buprion and varenicline – being used treat tobacco dependence. These drugs target mainly the “reward” pathways of the brain by meddling with the release and binding of dopamine in the brain in response to nicotine. Although these drugs achieve their intended effects, they aren’t real guarantees for quitting. In fact, they have high rates of relapse.

The insular cortex, which is a central region of the brain, may also have a vital role in the cognitive and emotional processes facilitating drug and tobacco use, according to recent studies.

Researchers involved in the addiction studies tested this theory. They tried to determine whether smokers with a damaged insular cortex were more likely to quit smoking. To do this, they looked at tow different set of indicators: did patients resume smoking after a stroke and how severe their craving was for cigarettes when they were hospitalized.

For the study, 156 stroke patients were involved. These patients were identified as active smokers and were admitted to three hospitals. MRI and CT scans were used to determine the location of the stroke for each patient.

The patients were then divided into two groups: those whose stroke occurred in the insular cortex and those whose stroke happened in another part of the brain.

Researchers then measured the level of smoking withdrawal of these patients while they were recovering in the hospital. Now, hospitalization does require patients to refrain from smoking for a certain amount of time. This was the kind of environment ideal for the measurement of how severe a patient’s withdrawal symptoms were.

Results of the study showed that patients who had a stroke in the insular cortex had less severe, as well as fewer, withdrawal symptoms compared to those who had a stroke in other areas of the brain.

The patients involved in the study were further monitored by the researchers for three months in order to determine whether they had taken up smoking again or not. The results? 70% of those who suffered a stroke in the insular cortex quit smoking compared to 37% of those who had a stroke in another part of the brain.





 Posted by at 3:04 pm